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BackStory

Medical history from Countway Library

by Susan Karcz

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Issue

The Cost of Conflict Spring 2018

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Nostalgia, soldier’s heart, railway spine, neurocirculatory asthenia, shell shock, war neurosis, battle fatigue. Follow the names for the condition we now call post-traumatic stress disorder, and you’ll trace the history of medical thinking regarding battle-induced trauma, from physiological and psychological models to a combined model, neuropsychiatry.

World War I made shell shock a household word, and even one hundred years after the end of that war, the term is still used as a synonym for stunned. Elmer Ernest (E. E.) Southard, MD 1901, in Shell-shock and other neuropsychiatric problems , a prodigious feat of cataloging published in 1919, served the medical profession by editing and compiling nearly 600 cases of battle-related trauma, drawing from “the literature of the belligerents, 1914-1917, English, French, Italian, Russian, and—so far as available here—German and Austrian.”

Intended as a training manual, the resulting case-book in “fields now collectively termed neuropsychiatry” reveals how wartime physicians were thinking about the condition as they encountered it. Southard hoped the book would prove useful in what he called reconstruction, or the mending of soldiers’ post-war psyches.

The work recognized the condition as a response to a violent event, but questions remained of contributing factors and whether the condition was more organic or functional, more physiologic or psychologic, more soma or psyche.

In Southard’s time, it was recognized that no two people had the same reaction to the same traumatic event and that some of the variation in response had to do with predictive factors such as prior or existing disease, substance abuse, and psychosis. While these and other factors are still part of the clinical picture, we now know far more about the plasticity of the brain and how experiences can alter its structure and function.

The question of why some people suffer severe consequences after trauma while others do not has still not been adequately answered. Kerry Ressler, MD ’97, PhD ’97, an HMS professor of psychiatry at McLean Hospital, has been researching the role of resilience and coping—how a stressful event is appraised and the strategies used following the appraisal—in the range of responses to trauma and development of chronic PTSD.

Like Southard, Ressler and other researchers are searching for ways to lessen or prevent chronic PTSD. The work in resilience is yielding some insights, but, as Ressler wrote in a recent paper, “it remains unclear how coping strategies influence resilience and PTSD development in the acute aftermath of trauma.”

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Building Evidence: Changes to the IES Goal Structure for FY 2019

The IES Goal Structure was created to support a continuum of education research that divides the research process into stages for both theoretical and practical purposes. Individually, the five goals – Exploration (Goal 1), Development and Innovation (Goal 2), Efficacy and Replication (Goal 3), Effectiveness (Goal 4), and Measurement (Goal 5) – were intended to help focus the work of researchers, while collectively they were intended to cover the range of activities needed to build evidence-based solutions to the most pressing education problems in our nation.Implicit in the g

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She met Nate McCoy while playing a local show and the band Darling Parade was later formed, with the addition of members Casey Conrad and Dustin McCoy. In 2009, Kearns moved to Nashville, TN to pursue music full-time. They released two EPs, landing placements on SyFy Channel's Stargate Universe, ABC Family's "The Lying Game", CW Channel's "Flygirls", and Showtime's "Shameless." The band’s success grew in 2011 with the release of the band’s third EP, “Until We Say It’s Over”, and landed the band the #8 spot on Billboard’s Next Big Sound chart. The first single “Never Wrong” received airplay on both MTVu and VH1. It also included, “Remember”, featuring guest vocals by Anberlin frontman, Stephen Christian. The spring of 2012, brought the band their first national tour with Cassadee Pope (Hey Monday, NBC’s The Voice).

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After touring most of 2014, Kearns is back in Nashville in between penning new music and returning to the studio with Darling Parade, she is currently performing acoustically at various wineries, live music venues, and weddings. She will soon be releasing her first acoustic EP in the spring of 2016.

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